XPS Imaging Background Corrections

XPS images are corrected for inelastic background and surface topography using Boolean type operations available in CasaXPS (Image Processing tab).  To correct an XPS image (A) taken of an element or from a chemical state of an element a background image (B) from ~ 10-15 eV below the main image binding energy needs to also be taken using the same spectrometer conditions and run time. To correct for inelastic background only (useful if you have very flat samples) subtract image B from image A. To do this in CasaXPS select image A and image B and press the overlay button (or F2), the press the (a-b) button in Image Processing. Image A will now be processed.

To correct for inelastic background and surface topography, the subtracted image (A-B) is then further divided by B.  This can be done as above using the (a-b)/b button in Image Processing. This process has been described in reference [1].

Quantitative XPS imaging is also possible. Some examples of this are described in references [2] and [3].

[1] B.A. Kobe, S. Ramamurthy, M.C. Biesinger, N.S. McIntyre, A.M. Brennenstuhl, Surf. Interface Anal. 37 (2005) 478.
[2] M.C. Biesinger, B.R. Hart, R. Polack, B.A. Kobe, R.St.C. Smart, Miner. Eng. 20 (2007) 152.
[3] B. Kobe, M. Badley, J.D. Henderson, S. Anderson, M.C. Biesinger, D.W. Shoesmith, Surf. Interface Anal. 49 (2017) 1345.