Advanced Analysis of Gallium Compounds

Work by Jeremy Bourque [1] demonstrates the power of XPS to elucidate chemical trends within a series of compounds.  This work shows results from an extensive analysis of the Ga 3d5/2, Ga 2p3/2 and Ga L3M45M5 spectra of a broad series of Ga compounds.  Binding energy positions, Auger parameters and chemical state (Wagner) plots are then used to understand the trends found for the various series of related compounds and to understand the chemistry of newly synthesized complexes.  Examples of studied trends include the changes as the oxidation states goes from Ga(0) through to Ga(III), changes as the ligand is modified on Ga(I) or Ga(III) species, and trends in the various semiconducting Ga materials.  This work has been applied to more compounds in [2].

Photoelectron binding and Auger electron kinetic energies and full-width at half-maxima for high-resolution XPS spectra along with associated Auger Parameters.

  Ga 3d (left), Ga 2p3/2 (center) and Ga L3M45M45 (right) XPS spectra of Ga(m) (bottom), GaNacNacDipp (lower middle), Ga2Cl4(diox)2 (upper middle) and GaCl3 (top).

Ga 3d (left), Ga 2p3/2 (center) and Ga L3M45M45 (right) XPS spectra of GaCl3 (bottom), GaBr3 (middle) and GaI3 (top).

Wagner plot of gallium materials using Ga 3d5/2 binding energy. Symbol legend: diamond = Group 15 elements; square = Group 16 elements.
[2] J.L. Bourque, R.A. Nanni, M.C. Biesinger, K.M. Baines, Inorganic Chemistry, 60 (2021) 14713-14720.