XPS Reference Pages

This site contains information gained from decades of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of an enormous variety of samples analyzed at Surface Science Western laboratories located at the University of Western Ontario. Originally this site was designed as a place for students and our clients to access valuable tips and information. It has since been opened to all those interested in the XPS technique. Summaries of literature data, relevant references and unpublished data taken of well characterized standard samples are presented. Also curve-fitting tips, instrument set-up tips (specifically for the Kratos AXIS Ultra and Kratos AXIS Nova), and CasaXPS tips pertaining to questions we normally get from our students and clients, and other odd bits of information are presented.

XPS and Surface Science Western

The fine print:
Surface Science Western and the University of Western Ontario does not warranty any of the information shown at this site. Any use of this data in scientific publications or other forms should include referencing to the originally published data referenced herein.


F 1s binding energy values.
Notes: [1] lists -CH2CHFCH2- (PVF) at 686.94 eV, (-CF2-CF2-)n (PTFE) at 689.67 eV, and OOCCF3 (PVTFA) at 688.16 eV.

[1]  G. Beamson, D. Briggs, High Resolution XPS of Organic Polymers - The Scienta ESCA300 Database Wiley Interscience, 1992.

Advanced Analysis of Gallium Compounds

Recent work by Jeremy Bourque [1] demonstrates the power of XPS to elucidate chemical trends within a series of compounds.  This work shows results from an extensive analysis of the Ga 3d5/2, Ga 2p3/2 and Ga L3M45M5 spectra of a broad series of Ga compounds.  Binding energy positions, Auger parameters and chemical state (Wagner) plots are then used to understand the trends found for the various series of related compounds and to understand the chemistry of newly synthesised complexes.  Examples of studied trends include the changes as the oxidation states goes from Ga(0) through to Ga(III), changes as the ligand is modified on Ga(I) or Ga(III) species, and trends in the various semiconducting Ga materials.

Photoelectron binding and Auger electron kinetic energies and full-width at half-maxima for high-resolution XPS spectra.

  Ga 3d (left), Ga 2p3/2 (center) and Ga L3M45M45 (right) XPS spectra of Ga(m) (bottom), GaNacNacDipp (lower middle), Ga2Cl4(diox)2 (upper middle) and GaCl3 (top).

Ga 3d (left), Ga 2p3/2 (center) and Ga L3M45M45 (right) XPS spectra of GaCl3 (bottom), GaBr3 (middle) and GaI3 (top).

Wagner plot of gallium materials using Ga 3d5/2 binding energy. Symbol legend: diamond = Group 15 elements; square = Group 16 elements.