XPS Reference Pages

This site contains information gained from decades of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of an enormous variety of samples analyzed at Surface Science Western laboratories located at the University of Western Ontario. Originally this site was designed as a place for students and our clients to access valuable tips and information. It has since been opened to all those interested in the XPS technique. Summaries of literature data, relevant references and unpublished data taken of well characterized standard samples are presented. Also curve-fitting tips, instrument set-up tips (specifically for the Kratos AXIS Ultra and Kratos AXIS Nova), and CasaXPS tips pertaining to questions we normally get from our students and clients, and other odd bits of information are presented.

XPS and Surface Science Western



The fine print:
Surface Science Western and the University of Western Ontario does not warranty any of the information shown at this site. Any use of this data in scientific publications or other forms should include referencing to the originally published data referenced herein.

Antimony

Sb 3d5/2 binding energy values [1].
Curve-fitted Sb 3d XPS spectrum.
Notes:
A) Doublet separation for Sb 3d5/2 - Sb 3d3/2 = 9.38 +/- 0.08 eV (5 Cit.).
[2] specifies a doublet separation of 9.34 eV.

B) Sb 3d5/2 overlaps with the O 1s spectrum. Need to fit and constrain the Sb 3d5/2 and Sb 3d3/2 peaks using the 3d3/2 peaks as a guide.  Remaining area in the 3d5/2 area will be due to O 1s signal.

C) Sb2O3 standard samples has Sb 3d5/2 at 530.1 to 530.3 eV. Sb2O5 standard sample at 530.9 eV.

D) Sb2S3 standard sample (Stibnite mineral sample) has Sb 3d5/2 peak at 529.6 eV. S 2p3/2 at 161.2 eV.

E) KSbO3 standard sample has Sb 3d5/2 peak at 530.7 eV.  K 2p3/2 at 292.8 eV.

References:
[1] C.D. Wagner, A.V. Naumkin, A. Kraut-Vass, J.W. Allison, C.J. Powell, J.R.Jr. Rumble, NIST
Standard Reference Database 20, Version 3.4 (web version) (http:/srdata.nist.gov/xps/) 2003.
[2] J.F. Moulder, W.F. Stickle, P.E. Sobol, K.D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Perkin-Elmer Corp., Eden Prairie, MN, 1992.

Palladium

Pd 3d5/2 binding energy values [1].
Notes:
A) Doublet separation Pd 3d5/2 - Pd 3d3/2 = 5.31 +/- 0.12 eV (8 Cit.).
[2] specifies a doublet separation of 5.26 eV.

B) PdO is reduced relatively rapidly by X-rays. Take steps to minimize X-ray exposure during acquisition.

C) Some references quote B.E. values for PdO2, however PdO is the only well characterized oxide of palladium. 

References:
[1] C.D. Wagner, A.V. Naumkin, A. Kraut-Vass, J.W. Allison, C.J. Powell, J.R.Jr. Rumble, NIST
Standard Reference Database 20, Version 3.4 (web version) (http:/srdata.nist.gov/xps/) 2003.
[2] J.F. Moulder, W.F. Stickle, P.E. Sobol, K.D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Perkin-Elmer Corp., Eden Prairie, MN, 1992.