XPS Reference Pages

This site contains information gained from decades of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of an enormous variety of samples analyzed at Surface Science Western laboratories located at the University of Western Ontario. Originally this site was designed as a place for students and our clients to access valuable tips and information. It has since been opened to all those interested in the XPS technique. Summaries of literature data, relevant references and unpublished data taken of well characterized standard samples are presented. Also curve-fitting tips, instrument set-up tips (specifically for the Kratos AXIS Ultra and Kratos AXIS Nova), and CasaXPS tips pertaining to questions we normally get from our students and clients, and other odd bits of information are presented.

XPS and Surface Science Western

The fine print:
Surface Science Western and the University of Western Ontario does not warranty any of the information shown at this site. Any use of this data in scientific publications or other forms should include referencing to the originally published data referenced herein.


K 2p3/2 binding energies.
K 2p3/2-1/2 splitting is 2.77 to 2.8 eV.

Notes: Often will see K 2p peaks in high resolution C 1s spectra. Be careful not to confuse these peaks with contributions from C 1s fluorocarbon peaks or pi -> pi* shake-up structure.

For quantification in survey scans it is ofter easier to use the K 2s peak (~380 eV) as the K 2p peak may not be fully separated from the C 1s peak at lower resolutions.

Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon

Noble gases are usually only observed when they have been implanted in materials - such as when sputtering using an ion beam.  Relevant binding energies below [1].

Ne 1s: 861.6 - 863.4 eV
Ne 2s: ~ 41 eV

Ar 2p3/2: 240.3 - 241.9 eV
Ar 2p3/2 - 2p1/2 splitting is 2.12 eV
Ar 2s: ~ 320 eV
Ar 3s: ~ 24 eV

Kr 3d5/2: ~ 87 eV
Kr 3d5/2-3d3/2 splitting is 1.23 eV
Kr 3p3/2: ~ 208 eV
Kr 3p1/2: ~ 216 eV
Kr 4s: ~ 21 eV

Xe 3d5/2: 668.9 - 674.1 eV
Xe 3d5/2 - 3d3/2 splitting is 12.67 eV
Xe 3p3/2: ~ 943 eV
Xe 3p1/2: ~ 996 eV
Note that MNN Auger structure overlaps the 3p3/2 peak (when using an Al X-ray source)
Xe 4d 5/2: ~ 61 eV
Xe 4d 3/2: ~ 63 eV
Xe 4p: ~ 139 eV
Xe 4s: ~ 207 eV
Xe 3s: ~ 1141 eV

[1] J.F. Moulder, W.F. Stickle, P.E. Sobol, K.D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Perkin-Elmer Corp, Eden Prairie, MN, 1992.